Nutrition in India













Table of Contents



NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION
HYDERABAD, INDIA

Vinodini Reddy, Meera Shekar, Pralhad Rao and Stuart Gillespie

December 1992

UN ACC/SCN Country case study supported by UNICEF.

Prepared for the XV International Congress of Nutrition, Adelaide, Australia, 26 September - 1 October, 1993.


Table of Contents


FOREWORD

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

PART I - NUTRITION ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS

SUMMARY
I - INTRODUCTION
II - SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRENDS

Demographic Trends

Age-sex structure
Life expectancy

Macroeconomic Trends

III - NUTRITION AND MORTALITY OUTCOMES

Growth Pattern of Children

Appropriateness of standards
Rural children
Secular trends

Nutritional Status Of Preschool Children

Weight-for-age (underweight)
Stunting and wasting

Clinical nutritional deficiency signs
Birth Weight
Nutritional Status of Adults

Relationship between adult BMI and various factors
Maternal nutritional status

Micronutrient Deficiencies

Vitamin A deficiency
Iron deficiency anaemia
Iodine deficiency disorders

Infant and Child Mortality

Relation between prevalences of severely underweight and mortality

Maternal Mortality

IV - IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF OBSERVED OUTCOMES

Disease
Food Consumption

V - FOOD SECURITY

National Food Security

Agriculture
Food production
Drought and food distribution
Per capita food availability

Household Food Security

Poverty
Food prices and expenditure

VI - HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

Resource Allocation and Infrastructure Development

Immunization coverage
Shelter, sanitation and water supply

VII - MATERNAL AND CHILD CARE

Mother and Child Health Care
Child Caring and Feeding Practices
Food Distribution within the Household
Education

Resource allocation
Infrastructure development
Female literacy outcomes

Socio-economic Status
Gender Issues in Child Care

VIII - CONCLUSIONS
ANNEX I: FOOD CONSUMPTION DATA: THE NATIONAL NUTRITION MONITORING BUREAU AND NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY ORGANISATION
REFERENCES

PART II - NUTRITION-RELEVANT ACTIONS IN ANDHRA PRADESH AND TAMIL NADU

Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu

Nutrition and Mortality Outcomes

Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu

Poverty and Nutrition
Food Consumption and Nutrition
The Political Economy of Nutrition
Resource Allocation for Nutrition
NUTRITION-RELEVANT ACTIONS

I - DIRECT NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS

A - The Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS)
B - The Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Programme (TINP)
TINP-II
C - The Midday Meals Programme
D - Vitamin A Prophylaxis Programme
E - Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme

II - FOOD INTERVENTIONS

The Public Distribution System (PDS)

The PDS in Andhra Pradesh
The PDS in Tamil Nadu

III - POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES

A - The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
B - The National Rural Employment Programme (NREP)
C - The Rural Labour Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)

WHY NUTRITION IMPROVES

The Role of Poverty Alleviation Schemes in Improving Nutrition
Why Nutrition Improved in Andhra Pradesh
Why Nutrition Improved in Tamil Nadu

CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
GLOSSARY
ABBREVIATIONS OF A.P. DISTRICTS (USED IN FIGURES)
ANNEX: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION

UNITED NATIONS - ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE ON COORDINATION - SUBCOMMITTEE ON NUTRITION (ACC/SCN)