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Editor’s Note - these pages provide information on eight major publications released this past year. These reports are excellent sources of information for writers, lecturers, advocates and others involved professionally in speaking up for nutrition. The FAO report is especially noteworthy in that it provides data on levels of food insecurity, by region and by country. The others provide comprehensive informa tion on key underlying and basic causes of poor nutrition outcomes. Two other important reports not available to us as we go to press with this issue of SCN News - The WHO/UNICEF/World Water Council Global Report on Water and Sanitation, and IFAD’s Report on Rural Poverty - will be covered in our next issue.

World Development Report 2000/2001
Attacking Poverty

The world has deep poverty amid plenty. Of the world’s 6 billion people, 2.8 billion - almost half - live on less than $2 a day. This report, following on others in this series issued in 1980 and 1990, tries to expand the understanding of poverty and its causes and sets out actions to create a world free of poverty. It argues that major reductions in human deprivation are possible, and that the forces of global integration and technological advance can and must be harnessed to serve the interests of poor people. This report accepts the now established view of poverty as encompassing not only low income and consumption but also low achievement in education, health, nutrition, and other areas of human development. A companion publication “Voices of the Poor” presents what people say poverty means to them - powerlessness, voicelessness, vulnerability and fear. This background study was conducted in 60 countries and sought the view of 60,000 women and men living in poverty.

ISBN 0-19-521129-4 Oxford University Press or The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433, USA. EMail: Web:

The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2000

The estimates provided in this report are disturbing: 792 million people in 98 developing countries are not getting enough food to lead normal, healthy and active lives. Even in industrialized countries and countries in transition the number remains the same as one year ago, when this report was in its first edition: 34 million. This slim report (only 31 pages) provides information on global and national efforts to reach the goal set by the 1996 World Food Summit: to reduce by half the number of food insecure people in the world by the year 2015. It introduces a new tool for measuring the severity of want: the depth of hunger. This is a measure of the per person food deficit of the food insecure within each country. Measured in kcals, it aims to assess just how empty the plate is each day. In industrialized countries, hungry people lack 130 kcals per day on average, while in five of the poorest countries, the daily food deficit is more than three times that, 450 kcals.

ISBN 92-5-104479-1 FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Web:

Global Environment Outlook, 2000 or “GEO-2000”

This is UNEP’s millennium report on the environment, prepared in collaboration with no less than 30 environmental institutes as well as other UN agencies. It presents a summing up of what we have attained to date as custodians of the environmental goods and services provided by our planet. The facts are bleak, the challenges daunting. The report starts by setting out two over-riding trends. First, the global human ecosystem is threatened by grave imbalances in productivity and in the distribution of goods and services. Unsustainable progression of extremes of wealth and poverty threatens the stability of the whole human system, and with it the global environment. Secondly, the world is undergoing accelerating change, with internationally-coordinated environmental stewardship lagging behind economic and social development. Environmental gains from new technology and policies are being overtaken by the pace and scale of population growth and economic development. The report argues that the processes of globalization that so strongly influence social evolution need to be directed towards resolving the serious imbalances that divide the world today.

ISBN 1-85383-588-9 UNEP, PO Box 30522, Nairobi, Kenya. EMail: Web: or Earthscan Publications Ltd, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, UK.
EMail: Web:

World Education Report 2000

Published by UNESCO, this report focuses on education as a basic human right, and was prepared to mark the International Year for the Culture of Peace. Despite the progress made in the decades that have passed since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was proclaimed, there are more than 800 million illiterate adults in the world today, and nearly 100 million primary-school age children (and even more secondary school children) are not in school. Quality is also an issue. Millions of those who attend school regularly do not benefit form an education of sufficient quality to meet their basic learning needs. These needs become ever more pressing as the vast changes brought by the information technology threaten to marginalize entire populations living in poverty. Past trends as well as projections are presented, region by region. Projections foresee little change in the large number of out-of-school primary age children in Sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2010, while the number is predicted to decline in south Asia. This report is the fifth in UNESCO’s biennial series of World Education Reports.

ISBN 92-3-103729-3 UNESCO, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France. Web:

World Migration Report 2000

The purpose of this report, put out by the International Organization for Migration, is to provide an authoritative account of contemporary trends, issues, and problems in the field of international migration. The book is divided into two parts. The first examines the scale of migration and characteristics of international migrants, the types of movements now underway, the factors that contribute to migration, the global contexts in which these movements occur, and the policy issues associated with these trends. The second part reviews migration trends and recent policy development in major migration regions of the world. In nine separate regional chapters, trends in immigration and emigration are examined. More than half of international migrants live in developing countries. The most rapid growth in the number of international migrants tends to occur as a result of refugee crises.

ISBN 92-9068-089-X IOM, case postale 71, CH 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Web:

The State of the World’s Refugees: 50 years of humanitarian action

This large volume focuses on the history of forced displacement in the second half of the 20th century and the development of approaches to this problem. Published by the UNHCR, the UN agency with a mandate to provide both international protection and solutions for refugees, this is as much a history of the UNHCR’s work as it is an analysis of population movements. The report points out that there has always been a tension between different actors involved in responding to the problem of forced displacement. That tension is especially evident in UNHCR’s relationship with states. States are UNHCR’s partners. However, UNHCR’s role is often to challenge states either for causing refugee movements or for failing to provide adequate protection and assistance to refugees and asylum seekers. The report contains a large number of very useful maps and case descriptions of displacement events.

ISBN 0-19-924106-6 Oxford University Press. Web: or UNHCR, Centre for Documentation and Research, CP 2500, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland. EMail: Web:

The State of World Population 2000
Lives Together, World Apart - Men and Women in a Time of Change

Published yearly by UNFPA, this report once again gives special attention to indicators that can help track progress in meeting the quantitative and qualitative goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in the areas of mortality reduction, access to education, and access to reproductive health services, including family planning. It makes the case for bringing gender inequality fully into the light and treating it as a matter of urgency affecting both human rights and development priorities. The report states that as much as 30% of economic growth may be attributed to better health and nutrition. Cuts in health services affect the poor most acutely, and poor women in particular. The report contains chapters on violence against women, the impacts of inequality on development as well as human rights. It also provides sobering information on the response of the donor community. The ICPD agreed that $5.7 billion in international assistance would be needed for reproductive health and population programmes in the year 2000, rising to $7.2 billion a year in 2015. Only about $2.1 billion a year is currently being made available.

ISBN 0-89714-582-8 UNFPA, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA. Web:

World Disasters Report: Focus on public health

This provocative report tries to get at the underlying causes of public health crises. As the Secretary General points out in his introduction, the Federation is best known for its disaster response, whether in local communities or the international arena, whereas the day-to-day work has more to do with providing basic health care and welfare. This report argues that advocacy at the international level must address some of the systematic threats to public health, such as lack of investment in solutions to developing world diseases and shifts from aid towards capital flows which may not serve the needs of the most vulnerable. The report is divided into two parts. The first documents a series of crises and impacts on affected populations: AIDS in Africa, North Korea’s food shortage and malnutrition, the Chernobyl disaster, and Kosovo. The second part, “Tracking the system”, reviews the International Federation operations over the years, and looks at two initiatives to improve its responses. The report also provides a very useful list of relevant websites at the end of each chapter.

ISBN 92-9139-066-6 International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 17 chemin des Crêts, PO Box 372, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. EMail: Web:

The Household Economy Approach - A Resource Manual for Practitioners Save the Children

Review by Anna Shotton, Programme Officer, Sudan Country Programme, World Food Programme

This resource manual is a step-by-step guide to the Household Economy Approach (HEA) and its application in relief and developme nt situations. Using the HEA you can understand the economy of a chosen population and then analyse the impact of a shock such as a crop failure on household income and access to food and essential non-food items. The HEA has been used extensively in rural Africa to assess the impact of droughts on the food security situation and as part of early warning systems - though the manual points to many other possible uses. The book serves both as a reference guide to food security experts as well as an introduction to non- specialists.

The manual is divided into nine, short chapters. Chapter one introduces the basic concepts behind the HEA. The second chapter examines the concept of household vulnerability, outlining the elements that determine the severity of a shock. The manual goes on to give an overview of the HEA and the information needed to conduct an HEA analysis. It describes the aim of the HEA understanding “how families are making ends meet under both normal and abnormal conditions.” Chapter four outlines the framework and definitions used in the HEA. All categories used are explained, though it is emphasised that the local communities being interviewed should play a key role in defining such classifications. The book then provides an overview of where and how to find the information needed for an HEA analysis. The pros and cons of many of the data sources are discussed, and the limitations of the data used in HEA examined. Chapter six describes some rapid rural appraisal (RRA) and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that can be used to collect data for an HEA analysis. Each RRA/PRA tool is explained in turn, as well as how to use it. Again the pros and cons of some of these data collection methods are touched on. In the following chapter, different ways of cross-checking for data accuracy are described. Chapter eight takes you through the entire process of converting data collected into a description of the household economy of an area, then defining a problem and analysing the likely impact of this event on the household economy, and finally linking this to possible intervention strategies. This section includes many clear examples of calculating deficits in food and cash income across different wealth groups in an economy. The final chapter looks at how to present the information obtained through an HEA analysis and explains what to put under each section of a report. Lastly, there are annexes providing information on computer software used in the HEA and examples of data collection forms.

A refreshing feature of the book is that it is easy to read. The chapters are interspersed with illustrative graphics and end with boxes summa-rising the key points of each section. Based on personal experience, the authors highlight the practical difficulties of carrying out an HEA analysis, and provide tips on how to overcome them. The book even gives friendly warnings of some of the traps the users are bound to fall into when using the method for the first time. However, a word of caution for those interested in a gender analysis of the impact of shocks on economies and how households cope in such situations, since the manual does not touch on this area.

As the book suggests, the resource manual is best coupled with formal training in the approach. Arguably the beauty of this manual is that it presents, in an approachable manner, a comprehensive overview of a method that is gaining widespread recognition for improving understanding and responses to food insecurity.

ISBN I-84187-029-3 Save the Children, Publications Sales, 17 Grove Lane, London SE5 8RD, UK. Web:

Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children

Kim Michaelsen, Lawrence Weaver, Francesco Branca and Aileen Robertson

Optimum nutrition and appropriate feeding of infants and young children determine their health, growth and development. The transition from an exclusively milk diet to one that includes an increasing variety of foods occurs at a particularly vulnerable time. Poor nutrition and feeding practices during this critical period may increase the risk of interrupted growth and nutritional deficiencies. This publication contains the scientific rationale for the development of national nutrition and feeding recommendations from birth to the age of three years.

The guidelines are designed for the WHO European Region, with emphasis on the countries of the former Soviet Union, but they can be applied universally. They are especially applicable to the most vulnerable groups of infants and young children living in deprived conditions, mainly in the eastern part of the region, but also in ethnic minorities and in low-income families in western Europe.

This publication will allow policy-makers and national experts to develop or update their current national nutrition and feeding recommendations. It can also be used as a text for postgraduate education in child health.

ISBN 92 890 1354 0 WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 87. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark.

Caring for the Nutritionally Vulnerable During Emergencies: An annotated bibliography

The primary focus of this bibliography is on the provision of support for the nutritionally vulnerable in emergencies, generally through food interventions. It contains both published ‘white’ literature and unpublished ‘grey’ literature that is not widely available in the public domain. Most of the ‘white’ literature consists of publications by United Nations organizations, non governmental organizations, peer-reviewed papers published in journals, and academic books. The ‘grey’ literature includes internal reports and papers from a number of international agencies, mainly based in Europe. Literature is also included on aspects of non-food-related care provision where this has important implications for nutrition outcomes. In addition, documents that describe methodologies which emphasize care as an important part of process have been included.

The bibliography does not represent a comprehensive review of all literature on care but contains examples of different approaches. Priority has been given to material relating to groups in emergency situations, although references are included that refer to post-emergency rehabilitation, or to conditions of extreme poverty where the approach is considered to be relevant to the application of care in emergencies. A significant proportion of this material relates to participatory approaches to needs assessment.

WHO/NHD/99.5. Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Web:

Mastitis: Causes and Management

This excellent document discusses all aspects of mastitis including its epidemiology, etiology, milk stasis, infection, pathology and clinical features, prevention and treatment. The authors stress the value of continuing breastfeeding throughout the treatment of mastitis. Effective management of breast fullness and engorgement and prompt attention to any signs of milk stasis and other breastfeeding difficulties are emphasized. Supportive coun-selling is an essential part of treatment along with effective milk removal, antibiotic therapy and symptomatic treatment for the relief of pain.

WHO/FCH/CAH/00.13 Department of Child and Adolescent Health, WHO, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. EMail: Web:

Management of the Child with a Serious Infection or Severe Malnutrition: Guidelines for Care at the First-Referral Level in Developing Countries

This manual is for use by doctors, nurses and other senior health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first referral level in developing countries.

It presents up-to-date clinical guidelines for both inpatient and outpatient care in small hospitals where basic laboratory facilities, essential drugs and inexpensive medicines are available.

The focus of these guidelines is on the inpatient management of the major causes of childhood mortality such as pneumonia, diarrhoea, severe malnutrition, malaria, meningitis, measles and related conditions. The manual complements standard, more comprehensive paediatric textbooks, which should be consulted on the management of rarer conditions or complications.

This manual is part of a series of documents and tools that support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). It is consistent with the IMCI guidelines for outpatient management of sick children. These guidelines are applicable in most areas of the world and may be adapted by countries to suit their specific circumstances.

WHO/FCH/CAH/00.1 Department of Child & Adolescent Health & Development (CAH), WHO, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. EMail: Web:

Complementary feeding of young children in Africa and the Middle East

The inter-country workshops on complementary feeding organized by the World Health Organization’s Programme on Nutrition brought together nutritionists and food scientists from many African and Middle Eastern countries. This documents captures the information presented at these workshops as well as giving background information on the scientific basis for complementary feeding. Additional chapters include an overview of current practices in Africa and the Middle East; the safety, quality and energy-density of complementary foods; the framework for the small-scale production of complementary foods; methods and experience of preparing these foods in the home; communication tools and strategies for the promotion of appropriate feeding; a model for evaluating the nutritional impact of programmes to improve complementary feeding; a detailed description of the situation relating to the feeding of infants and young children in 33 countries in Africa and the Middle East, and experiences with small-scale production of complementary foods in 11 countries.

WHO/NHD/99.3 WHO/AFRO/NUT/99.4 Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD), World Health Organization 20, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Zinc and Human Health

Edited by: Kenneth Brown and Sara Wuehler

This document is based on a conference on zinc and human health: results of recent intervention trials and implications for programmatic interventions and program-linked research which was held at the University of California, Davis, October 1999. The report includes a summary of current knowledge on zinc metabolism, assessment of zinc status, estimate of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency, complications of zinc deficiency and the range of program approaches available to enhance zinc status. The second half of the report gives the results of small discussion groups, the ultimate objective of which was to prepare guidelines for the development of zinc intervention programs and to identify particular issues that require further research to facilitate program implementation. The report concludes with the research needs for this important area of nutrition.

ISBN 1-894217-13-6 The Micronutrient Initiative, P O Box 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1G 3H9.

Sight and Life Manual on Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders 2nd edition

Donald S McLaren and Martin Frigg

This handbook is the latest in the diverse range of information tools produced over the last few years by SIGHT and LIFE. The Manual takes a very practical approach to combating vitamin A deficiency. It deals with problems that are of concern to health and nutrition workers, especially those in the fields of child survival and protection of vision. If read through chapter by chapter it will provide a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the subject. The manual may also be used as a reference text. The first part deals with the physical and chemical nature of vitamin A, its sources in food and detailed information on the bioavailability of carotenoids. Subsequent chapters discuss vitamin A’s role in health; methods of assessing vitamin A status; and its effects on morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of vitamin A deficiency as well as progress made in its control are discussed. Finally, a chapter on the role of retinoids in general medicine is included. The result is an excellent handbook for those working in the “vitamin A front line” in developing countries who need an information tool that presents the complexities of this topic in a clear and understandable fashion without oversimplifying the issues.

SIGHT and LIFE, P O Box 2116,
4002 Basel, Switzerland.

IFAD and NGOs: Dynamic Partnerships to Fight Rural Poverty

This publication describes the origin of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and explains its strategy and approach to fulfilling its mandate of promoting the economic advancement of the rural poor mainly by improving their productivity both on and off the farm. IFAD’s partnerships with NGOs contribute to its objectives by securing maximum beneficiary participation and involvement of grassroots organizations in projects. The booklet describes how IFAD works with NGOs to build apacity at the local level. Guidelines are given on how NGOs can initiate partnerships with IFAD and apply for grants.

IFAD, Via del Serafico 107, 00142 Rome, Italy.

LanguaL 2000 - Introduction to the LanguaL Thesaurus

COST Action 99

LanguaL stands for “Langua aLimentaria” or “language of food”. It is an automated method for describing, capturing and retrieving data about food. The work on LanguaL was started in the late 70s by the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the United States Food and Drug Administration as an ongoing co-operative effort of specialists in food technology, information science and nutrition. Since then LanguaL has been developed in collaboration with the US National Cancer Institute and, more recently its European partners, notably in France, Denmark, Switzerland and Hungary. Since 1996, the European LanguaL Technical Committee has administered the thesaurus.

As constructed, LanguaL is a multilingual thesaural system using a standardised language for describing foods, specifically for classifying food products for information retrieval. LanguaL is based on the concept that:

· Any food (or food product) can be systematically described by a combination of characteristics

· These characteristics can be categorised into viewpoints and coded for computer processing

· The resulting viewpoint/characteristic codes can be used to retrieve data about the food from external databases

This manual describes the LanguaL thesaurus in some detail. It presents an in-depth example of how LanguaL can be applied and give general rules for indexing.

ISBN 92-828-9163-1 Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, European Commission, rue de la Loi/Wetstraat 200, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium.

Humanitarian Action in the 21st Century (2000) Inter-Agency Standing Committee

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), chaired by the Emergency Relief Co-ordinator (ERC), ensures interagency decision-making in response to complex emergencies. The IASC is formed by the executive heads of sixteen leading agencies and NGO consortia, providing a good representation of today’s composite humanitarian world. This book gives the mission statement of each of the agencies along with each director’s vision for the future - where they are going, what are the challenges, what is needed to get there. The need to build the capacity of governments and civil society organizations to meet their own responsibilities is a recurring theme throughout the book. Human rights must be strengthened, for without them sustainable human development is impossible.

ISBN: 0-9701247-4-0 Published by OCHA, on behalf of IASC, United Nations S.3600, New York, NY 10017.

Attacking Poverty While Improving the Environment: Practical Recommendations

There is a recognized need to arrest the increase in poverty while at the same time reversing the current trends of environmental degradation. As part of the effort to meet the challenges, the United Nations Development Programme and the European Commission have embarked upon the Poverty and Environment Initiative. The goal of the initiative is to provide a forum for experienced practitioners, policy-makers, researchers and politicians to share their knowledge and identify solutions. This book outlines practical recommendations for attacking poverty while improving the environment. It emphasizes the need for conceptual shifts in our thinking which include engaging the poor as partners and creating incentives for them to mobilize resources for poverty eradication. Operational shifts such as moving to decentralized planning and improved revenue-sharing mechanisms are also required for success. The booklet concludes with specific policy recommendations on infrastructure and technology development, and employment and compensation for the poor.

UNDP, Sustainable Energy and Environment Division, 304 East 45th Street, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10017, USA. Web: European Commission, Division for Environment and Natural Resources, Directorate-General for Development, European Commission, 200 rue de la Loi, B-1049, Brussels, Belgium

Gender Perspective - Focus on the Rural Poor

During the last twenty years, IFAD has learned a great deal about the prevalence and causes of poverty and malnutrition and has increasingly recognized that taking a gender perspective helps to illuminate the nature of rural poverty. A gender perspective looks at how and why men and women experience poverty differently and become poor through different processes and in turn how rural development presents different opportunities and challenges for men and women.

This booklet reviews gender issues in IFAD’s ongoing projects and illustrates some of the opportunities regarding gender that IFAD has explored in the course of its initiatives. Areas touched on include training and literacy; rural finance; agricultural and livestock production; rural enterprise and marketing support; water, health and nutrition; and strengthening women’s organizations and participation. The document indicates that there are still many challenges to overcome. IFAD recognizes the need to ensure increased and more equitable participation of women and men in project planning. It remains committed to enhancing the responsiveness of its projects to gender differences.

IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) Via del Serafico 107, 00142 Rome, Italy. EMail:

Thematic Study on School Health and Nutrition

By Cheryl Vince Whitman, Carmen Aldinger, Beryl Levinger and Isolde Birdthistle

This report was commissioned by the World Health Orgainization’s Department of Health Promotion, on behalf of Education for All (EFA) 2000. It was prepared for presentation and discussion at the World Education Forum in Dakar, April 2000. It reviews the major activities that have taken place in the school health and nutrition field around the world during the last 10 years. The link between learning and health clearly shows that EFA is unlikely to be achieved without significant improvements in the health and nutrition of students and teachers. Of the many effective research-supported strategies, two that are nutrition-related stand out: 1) school-based nutrition interventions can improve academic performance and 2) health and nutrition status affect enrolment, retention and absenteeism. Major suggestions are offered for the future including: the development of a shared vision; a commitment to act; a pledge to work collaboratively; and the importance of a global effort to share and acquire information.

EFA Forum Secretariat, UNESCO, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France. EMail:

Turning the Tide of Malnutrition: Responding to the challenge of the 21st century (2000)

Malnutrition results from a complex interaction of the food we eat, our state of health and the environment in which we live. It affects at least one in three people worldwide afflicting all age groups and populations and is rooted in poverty and discrimination. This 20-page booklet highlights the determinants of malnutrition. Alleviating malnutrition, combating micronutrient deficiencies, controlling the global obesity epidemic are challenges that are being addressed by WHO in practically every corner of the world. Promo ting proper feeding for infants and young children, and developing effective food and nutrition policies and programmes are all part of WHO’s focus on nutrition. Global databases on child growth and malnutrition; micronutrient deficiency; iodine deficiency disorders; vitamin A deficiency; breastfeeding; obesity and adult body mass index; and national nutrition policies and programmes provide essential information on the current magnitude of the challenges.

WHO/NHD/00.7 Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD), World Health Organization 20, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Food Safety for Nutritionists and Other Health Professionals

This training manual has been produced for use in courses aimed at helping nutritionists and other health professionals understand the basic principles of food safety, the causes of foodborne disease, and opportunities for prevention, whether in food service establishments or homes. Intended to support an eight-day course, the manual also can be used to train food and public health workers, nurses, home economists, and other health professionals who can contribute to improved safety.

Prepared jointly by WHO and the Industry Council for Development, the manual adopts a practical approach, emphasizing knowledge and skills needed to recognize unsafe food and food-handling practices, understand the implications for health, and develop appropriate intervention strategies. The manual features 27 lectures presented in eleven modules. While the document is primarily aimed at students having a limited knowledge of microbiology, students with more advanced knowledge can benefit from the sections on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System and related training exercises.

WHO/SDE/PHE/FOS/00.1 WHO, 20, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. EMail:

Household Food Security And Gender

This 20-page booklet is intended to be used by team members and project staff in the design of projects, programmes or activities to be supported by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). It contains a summary of issues to be addressed in designing projects on household food security and gender. The summary is followed by two support tools: a checklist to guide collection of socioeconomic data at field level; and a household food security matrix that analyzes - using an IFAD project as an example - implications and risks for household food security of specific project activities and components. The second part of the booklet contains six thematic reminders on savings and credit; rural enterprises; livestock; environmental and natural resources; social and infrastructure constraints; and agriculture which can be used as reference material by different team members according to their areas of specialization.

IFAD, Via del Serafico 107, 00142 Rome, Italy. EMail:

Controlling Intestinal Helminths While Eliminating Lymphatic Filariasis

Edited by LS Stephenson, CV Holland and EA Ottesen, Supplement to Parasitology vol 121, 2000

The Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), launched in 1997, is a public-sector/private-sector partnership organized as a Global Alliance, with the World Health Organization serving as secretariat. Its principal purpose is to carry out the mandate of the 50th World Health Assembly (1997) to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem worldwide, but its tools and strategies for achieving this goal also have mportanti additional public health benefits. Foremost among these are the effects the Programme can have on the control of intestinal helminth infections in treated populations, largely because of certain similarities, or overlap, of the drugs and strategies used in the public health approaches to these parasitic infections.

This supplement, consisting of ten up-to-date review articles, provides important data for both recognizing and gauging the magnitude of the ancillary public health benefit LF elimination programmes can have on the control of intestinal helminths. The first six contributions focus on global malnutrition and on the public health importance and benefits of treating and controlling the three major intestinal nematodes (hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura) that are widely prevalent in the 73 countries where lymphatic filariasis is endemic (and in hundreds of millions of people elsewhere as well). The first review describes the current state of global malnutrition particularly in relation to underweight, iron deficiency and anaemias, vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders, and zinc deficiency. The second review explores the links between malnutrition and parasitic helminth infections, emphasizing in particular mechanisms through which parasites may cause or aggravate malnutrition. Three reviews on the public health importance of hookworm, Ascaris, and Trichuris describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and public health benefits of treating and controlling these infections, emphasizing their impact on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, child growth and appetite, physical fitness and activity, and cognition and educational outcomes. The use of animal models to study human intestinal nematode infections is also reviewed in detail. The final four articles extensively review the principal chemotherapeutic tools that will be used in the programmes to eliminate LF and that will confer additional public health benefits from treating and controlling intestinal helminth infections; namely, alben-dazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and the safe use of these drugs in 2-drug co-administration regimens. The supplement is designed to provide extensive background information and offer guidance for decision makers, researchers, and others with an interest in helminth control and its implications for public nutrition and development.

Published by Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-00506-X, 24.95/$39.95. In UK, send payment with order to Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK; in USA, Canada and Mexico, Cambridge University Press, Journals Fulfillment Department, 110 Midland Avenue, Port Chester, NY 10573-4930 USA. Web:


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