Technology transfer and development activities by the UN system promote the diffusion and uptake of environmentallyfriendly and climate-friendly technologies and practices towards achieving objectives of mitigation and adaptation at the country level.
The transfer of technologies to developing countries is central to pursuing meaningful adaptation and mitigation actions, as well as more broadly advancing sustainable development goals and objectives. This issue has been highlighted in discussions on the post-2012 framework for international climate policy, with the Bali Action Plan highlighting the importance of technology transfer. The framework under the UNFCCC has five main themes: technology needs and needs assessments; technology information; enabling environments; capacity building; and mechanisms for technology transfer (decision 4/ CP.7). The UN system is supporting enhanced implementation of the Convention through increased collaborative and mutually reinforcing actions within these five themes.
The UN system activities are sensitive to the reality that the support for the development and transfer of technology requires not only “hard” technology, but also support for national capacity and systems to facilitate the transfer, development and deployment of technologies. Future work will need to build on, and then move beyond, national technology needs assessments to in-depth analyses of the actual market and trade barriers that prevent technology transfer and uptake from taking place. Many existing technologies can be deployed more widely in developing countries with local and global benefits, with a prominent example being energy efficiency, particularly in the building sector. At the same time, new global partnerships will be necessary to develop and deploy the next generation of technologies to meet climate and sustainable development goals.
The UN is currently taking action in a number of critical areas to support development and transfer of technologies to address climate change, including:
Support to countries in preparation of their Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) reports; development of energy indicators for a sustainable development methodology that facilitates identifying options and potential for technology transfer in the energy sector;
Transforming markets through testing, development and establishment of new technologies; promoting the development of markets for energy efficient technologies and development of International Standards on Energy Management.