NGLS Roundup 89, March 2002
HUMAN RIGHTS OF MIGRANTS
Today there are more than 150 million international migrants, representing approximately 3% of the world's population. According to the United Nations Population Division, the growth of the global population of migrants is accelerating and has reached an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The largest numbers of migrants are in Asia, Europe and North America while Africa, Latin America and Oceania have, in descending order, fewer migrants. More than half of migrants come from and move to developing countries. In addition, migration often takes place within the same continent. Data collected in Asian countries from 1975 to 1994 reveals that less than 10% of migrants left Asia.
The United States, India, Pakistan, France, Germany, Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the Islamic Republic of Iran receive the largest numbers of migrants, while Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and India generate the largest numbers of migrants. The highest proportions of migrants are found in the Gulf area where they constitute more than 70% of the populations of the United Arab Emirates and Qatar. Although a relatively small share of the international migration flow goes to developed countries, these migrants tend to represent a higher percentage of the overall population in those countries. In Western Europe and North America, for instance, migrants reach 10% of the overall population.
In terms of gender distribution of migrants, 52.5% are men and 47.5% are women. Women tend to migrate more to developed countries (50%) than to developing countries (46%). Studies have noted an increasing feminization of migration in which the female migrant moves abroad as a wage earner rather than as an accompanying family member. By the mid-1980s, more than 1.5 million Asian women were working abroad. More than 60% of migrants from Sri Lanka, for example, are women, employed mostly as domestic workers.
Issues at Stake
The globalization of production and services has had a displacement effect on local economies, motivating large numbers of people to leave their countries of origin. Migrant experts predicted in the 1990s that as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the closer integration of Mexico's economy into those of the United States and Canada, one million Mexican farmers, out of a population of 28 million farmers, would leave the countryside each year for a ten-year period and migrate to either mid-sized Mexican cities, border areas to work in the maquiladoras assembly plants, or to the United States.
Migrants' advocates contend that domestic inequality, poverty, armed conflicts, racism, intolerance, and democratic shortcomings are the root causes of migration, together with external factors brought about by globalization. In particular, economic globalization has contributed to migration by weakening the ability of developing countries to generate employment for most of the population, to invest in basic infrastructure and support their own industry, and to allocate resources for health, education and social security. The cross-border free flow of capital, information and services is not matched by a free flow of people. Restrictive migration policies deny many migrants the possibility of acquiring a regular migrant status, and, as a result, they end up being in an irregular or undocumented situation in the host country and can be exposed to serious violations of their basic rights.
In relation to some of the most contentious issues concerning the human rights of migrants, some States are reluctant to ensure equal treatment of migrants vis-à-vis the nationals of the host country in key areas such as employment, health care, education, housing, legal protection, and trade union rights. Another controversial issue concerns guaranteeing the basic human rights for all migrants, regardless of their immigration status. Although Member States are starting to recognize the need to legally protect undocumented migrants, in real terms this has not materialized in many countries.
The World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR), held in Durban (South Africa) in September 2001, offered a framework to approach the current debate on how to harmonize law enforcement and control measures from a human-rights perspective. Consequently, WCAR asked States, in consultation with civil society, to support or establish regional dialogues on the causes and consequences of migration that focus not only on law enforcement and border control, but also on the promotion and protection of the human rights of migrants, and on the relationship between migration and sustainable development.
The term “migrant” refers in general to a person who takes up residence temporarily or permanently outside her or his country of origin. More specifically the term is often applied to migrant workers. The UN Convention on the Rights of Migrants defines a migrant worker as “a person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national.” In contrast, refugees are defined by the 1951 Geneva Convention as persons who, “owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion,” have been forced to leave their country.
There is wide recognition of the positive contribution of migrants to both their host country and country of origin, ranging from new forms of knowledge, social interaction and cultural diversity, to their economic contribution in both countries. More specifically, the successful integration of migrant communities can create social cohesion, multi-ethnic diversity, and, through their cultural capital, can contribute to developing open and tolerant societies. However, migrants and refugees are not always accepted or integrated, thus creating tension that expresses itself in forms of intolerance, racism, and negative stereotyping, which brings about the need for the protection of their basic rights.
Today there is much debate on the question of protection—historically associated with safeguarding the political and civil rights of refugees and asylum-seekers—that seeks to study the links between migrants and refugees. This debate takes into account not only the applicability of political and civil rights for migrants, but also considers the indivisibility of political, civil, social, economic and cultural rights as well. In supporting a comprehensive approach to the issue, NGOs are calling on governments to establish migration policies that take into consideration the impact of economic and social decisions made by the international financial and trade institutions; the activities of receiving countries concerning trade, investment, and finance; and the economic, social and political realities of the sending countries.
Migration Issues at the United Nations
The United Nations has taken a number of steps in relation to the human rights of migrants and their families, ranging from the 1990 UN Convention on the Rights of Migrants to General Assembly resolutions, to the appointment of a Special Rapporteur, and by integrating migration into the elaboration of sustainable and social development programmes. This work complements the pioneering efforts of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in setting up standards to protect the rights of migrant workers.
The 1990 International Convention On the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families
Ratification Charter (as of February 2002)
State Parties (ratifications): 19
Azerbaijan, Belize, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cape Verde, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Mexico, Morocco, Philippines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Uganda, and Uruguay.
Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chile, Comoros, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Paraguay, São Tomé and Principe, Sierra Leone, Togo, Turkey.
Signature is a preliminary step to ratification; accession is an “all in one” adoption of the Convention equivalent to ratification in signifying that the Convention standards are incorporated into national law and the country has become a State Party to the Convention. A status chart, the text of the Convention, and Human Rights Commission resolutions and reports related to migrants rights are available on the website of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/m_mwctoc.htm).
CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF MIGRANTS
In December 1990, after ten years of intense work and negotiations, the General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, a comprehensive international treaty that takes into account existing non-binding and legally binding UN instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. The Convention represents a legal instrument that provides basic provisions to protect, respect and fulfil the human rights of migrants, and in particular those of migrant workers and members of their families.
The Convention considers migrant workers as social beings along with their families rather than considering them only as labourers or economic entities. The Convention covers the entire migration process, which entails “departure, transit and the entire period of stay and remunerated activity in the State of employment as well as return to the State of origin or the State of habitual residence.”
It reaffirms basic rights for all migrant workers and members of their families such as the right to life, the right to leave any State, including their State of origin, and the right to liberty of movement in the territory of the State of employment. It stipulates that no migrant worker or family member shall be held in slavery or servitude, or be subjected to forced or compulsory labour. The Convention guarantees the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; the right to hold opinions without interference; the right to freedom of expression; the right to privacy; and the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Furthermore, this Convention calls upon States to make sure that “each child of a migrant worker shall have the right to a name, to registration of birth and to a nationality.” In addition, the Convention ensures migrant workers and members of their families the right to liberty and security of person; the right to equality “with nationals of the State concerned before the courts and tribunals;” and their right to a fair and public hearing by a “competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law.”
The Convention, in recognizing the vulnerable situation in which non-documented migrant workers find themselves, calls upon States to protect the fundamental rights of migrant workers regardless of their immigration status, and makes particular reference to prohibiting employers from using the irregular status of some migrant workers as a pretext not to comply with their legal or contractual obligations. The Convention establishes the right of all migrant workers and members of their families to urgent medical care, and the right of access to basic education for each child of migrant workers, irrespective of the immigration status of their parents.
The Convention contains provisions to ensure that migrant workers are on a par with nationals of the host country relating to remuneration, overtime, hours of work, social security, safety, minimum age of employment, and access to housing, social and health services, among others.
Global Campaign for Ratification of Migration Convention
The Convention on the Rights of Migrants will enter into force once 20 States accede to or ratify it (see box on page 2). In 1998 a global campaign for the ratification of the Convention and full incorporation of the Convention's provisions into national legislation was launched. The campaign's steering committee, composed of 15 intergovernmental organizations and international NGOs, includes Human Rights Watch, the International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC), the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), the International Movement Against All Forms of Discrimination and Racism (IMADR), Migrants Rights International (MRI), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the International Labour Organization.
It works closely with NGOs responsible for national ratification campaigns in different regions of the world, and has also rallied support for the Migrants Convention within the UN system, in the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) and the WCAR preparatory process, for example.
Challenges lie ahead for migrants' rights advocates not only in achieving widespread ratification of the Convention, but also in securing the acceptance of receiving developed countries, as to date, none have become party to the Convention. Some developed nations have expressed reservations about the Convention as they consider it to be “too ambitious and detailed” and therefore not practical or viable as an international legal instrument. Human rights advocates say the reaction to the 11 September terrorist attacks in the US has reinforced already existing restrictive and discriminatory migration policies in rich receiving countries. Since last September, NGOs have documented a sharp increase in the number of racist and xenophobic acts of aggression against migrants in the US and Europe, and have also denounced the application of anti-terrorist measures that go against international human rights instruments.
ILO CONVENTIONS ON MIGRANT WORKERS’ RIGHTS
The ILO has been the lead UN system agency in setting standards for protecting the rights of migrant workers. More specifically, the ILO set in place two conventions. The first, Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) no. 97 of 1949, grants equal treatment between nationals and non-nationals in the social security field and protects acquired rights. The second, the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention no. 143 of 1975, deals with violations of the human rights of migrant workers.
The Migration for Employment Convention contains a series of provisions designed to assist migrants engaged in a remunerative activity. The Convention defines a migrant as “…a person who migrates from one country to another with a view to being employed otherwise than on his own account and includes any person regularly admitted as a migrant for employment.” The Convention, which has been ratified by 41 countries so far, calls for the treatment of documented migrants on an equal footing with the nationals of the country in which migrants reside concerning remuneration, trade union membership and enjoyment of the benefits of collective bargaining, accommodation, social security, and employment taxes, among other provisions.
The Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention deals with migration in abusive conditions and calls upon States to suppress clandestine movements of migrants for employment and illegal employment. The Convention, which has so far received 18 ratifications, requires that in case of loss of employment, the migrant worker who “has resided legally in the territory for the purpose of employment” should not lose her or his right of residence and work permit. If the host country had in place legislation on employment security, relief work and retraining programmes for its nationals, the Convention asks for the extension of those benefits to documented migrants as well. For those migrant workers in irregular situations, the Convention also stipulates that they should “…enjoy equality of treatment for himself and his family in respect of rights arising out of past employment as regards remuneration, social security and other benefits.” In addition, the Convention calls upon States, depending on national conditions and practice, to assist and encourage migrant workers and their families to preserve their national and ethnic identity and their cultural ties to their countries of origin, and to guarantee equality of treatment with regard to working conditions “for all migrant workers who perform the same activity whatever might be the particular conditions of their employment.”
REPORT OF WORKING GROUP OF EXPERTS ON MIGRANT RIGHTS
In 1997 the Commission on Human Rights appointed the Working Group of Intergovernmental Experts on the Human Rights of Migrants. The Working Group found that to overcome institutional and legal obstacles to the full realization of the human rights of migrants, it was necessary for States to protect the fundamental human rights of migrants regardless of their immigration status. It strongly recommended that States become parties to specific and consistent human rights instruments such as the 1990 UN Convention, as well as the ILO Conventions. At the same time, the experts urged States to implement provisions that were already applicable to migrants under international law with reference to their job, recruitment, housing security, education and social security.
Concerning social obstacles, the Working Group recommended remedial policies that would focus on empowering migrants by guaranteeing their right to freedom of association and to engage in trade union activities. In addition, the experts advised States to promote cultural diversity by informing the public at large on the economic, social and cultural contributions made by migrants to their host societies, thus helping to combat discriminatory and xenophobic behaviour. Furthermore, the experts' report encourages States to involve the public and private mass media to disseminate information on the human rights of migrants and their communities in a fair manner, while taking a gender perspective into account. It also recommends that migrants be enabled to develop their own programmes dealing with the political, social and cultural realities of their communities.
In terms of overcoming economic obstacles, the experts' report urges States to extend legal protection to the large number of workers who are undocumented or in an irregular situation in the informal sector, and to assist private enterprises to comply with basic human rights instruments. Recognizing that globalization of the world economy has intensified the flow of both documented and undocumented migrants, the report calls for shortages of labour to be overcome through legal migration or by implementing policies that would restore the labour market of a particular country. The report also suggests adopting punitive measures against employers of irregular migrants and those who use forced labour and slavery-like practices in the pursuit of profit. The report recommends that States adopt international standards on combating trafficking in human beings and the punishment of its perpetrators. The report also highlights the importance of making a clear distinction between trafficking, which is a criminal act, and irregular migration, to avoid victimizing migrants in an undocumented or irregular situation.
Inter-Agency document on
“International Migration, Racism, Discrimination and Xenophobia”
IOM, ILO and UNHCHR uphold that
the following core principles for action will allow an effective engagement
against the racism and xenophobia faced by migrants and refugees:
For all migrants regardless of
—Strengthen the rule of law by
adoption and implementation in national law of relevant international standards,
particularly those recognizing and protecting rights of non-nationals.
—Make racist and xenophobic
discrimination, behaviour and action, including against non-nationals and
stateless persons unacceptable and, as appropriate, illegal.
measures, procedures and initiatives to ensure full implementation of
legislation, and accountability of all government officials/employees.
—Establish independent national
human rights/anti-discrimination monitoring bodies with power to (i) monitor and
enforce ant-discrimination legislation; and (ii) receive and act upon individual
complaints of discrimination from nationals and non-nationals against both
public and private entities.
—Promote respect for diversity
and multicultural interaction.
—Encourage political, community
and cultural leaders to speak out to promote respect for all, and resolutely to
condemn manifestations of racism and xenophobia.
—Encourage communications media
to emphasize positive images of diversity and of migration to eliminate negative
—Incorporate multicultural and
diversity training in educational curricula.
—Mobilize civil society
cooperation in promotion, implementation and monitoring of anti-discrimination
SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF MIGRANTS
In August 1999 the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) appointed Gabriela Rodriguez Pizarro for a three-year period as the first Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants. The Special Rapporteur is responsible for requesting and receiving information from migrants and members of their families on violations of their human rights; issuing recommendations to prevent and correct such violations; promoting the effective application of relevant international legal instruments; recommending policies applicable at the national, regional and international levels to eliminate human rights violations of migrants; and recording and recommending measures to stop multiple discrimination and violence against migrant women.
The CHR has recommended that Member States invite the Special Rapporteur to visit their countries so that she can become more aware of their migrant situations. Without replacing the role of national judiciaries, the Special Rapporteur carries out investigations and issues reports containing her observations and recommendations. The Special Rapporteur has visited Canada and Ecuador and recently completed a fact-finding mission to Mexico and the United States in March 2002, visiting areas on both sides of the US-Mexican border as well as Mexico's border with Guatemala. She expressed concern over the situation of undocumented migrants, referring to the detention centres she visited in Mexico in which undocumented migrants, including entire families, were being held alongside criminals. She stressed that migrants are exposed to not only the danger posed by smugglers who frequently put migrants' lives at risk, but also the danger of being subjected to forced labour. She warned that children, in particular, are at risk of being sold into prostitution or forced into pornography. “Our human rights culture has not taken into account the fact that the whole migration phenomenon and the way it is managed is an issue of shared responsibility between States—both the States of origin and transit and the States of destination,” she emphasized, adding that “The more corruption we have in the South, the more barriers we will have in the North.”
INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS DAY
On the second observance of the International Migrants Day on 18 December 2001, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that it was an occasion “to recognize the huge, but often unseen, contribution that millions of migrants make to economies, societies and cultural advancement of countries throughout the world.” The General Assembly first proclaimed 18 December as International Migrants Day in December 2000, providing States, intergovernmental organizations and NGOs with the opportunity to draw attention to the need to protect the fundamental human rights of documented and undocumented migrants, to share experiences, disseminate information, and to encourage governments to become parties to the Convention on the Rights of Migrants.
Campaigns on Human Rights of
Migrant domestic workers are often
exposed to abuse, exploitation, and discrimination. They are underpaid, their
working conditions are poor and often dangerous, and their bargaining power is
severely limited. Furthermore, most migrant domestic workers are women, thus
they suffer at times multiple discrimination based upon gender, nationality,
ethnicity and occupation.
Worldwide, several national and
regional NGO coalitions are currently engaged in campaigns which share many
strategies and goals to safeguard the basic human rights of migrant domestic
workers. More specifically, a group of European NGOs has launched a campaign
calling for the implementation of a migrant domestic workers’ charter of
rights. Some of the provisions include:
—The right to an immigration
status that recognizes that domestic work in private households is proper work.
—The right to an immigration
status for the worker independent of any employer.
—The right to travel both within
the host country and between all countries of the European Union.
—The right to full and
non-discriminatory employment rights and social protection, including minimum
wage, sickness and maternity pay, and pension rights.
—The right to change employers.
—The right to a legally
enforceable contract of employment setting out minimum wages, maximum hours and
—The right to work free from
fear of physical, sexual or psychological abuse.
—The right to join a trade
—The right to live and work free
—The right to family life,
including health, education and social rights for the children of migrant
—The right to recognition of
qualifications, training and experience obtained in the home country.
—The right to personal and
Contact: SOLIDAR, Rue de Commerce
22, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium, telephone +32-2/500 1020, fax
+32-2/500 1030, e-mail <email@example.com>,
MIGRANT WORKERS AND UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCES
The first UN World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination held in Geneva in 1978 drew international attention to the plight of migrants and called for the protection of the human rights of both documented and undocumented migrant workers and their families. In particular, it requested States to ensure that their legislative, administrative and other practices were compatible with international standards in protecting the rights of migrant workers and their families. Its programme of action called on States to eliminate any discriminatory practices against migrant workers and their families by granting them “treatment no less favourable than that accorded to their own nationals.”
Other major UN conferences have also dealt with migration in the context of environmental questions, sustainable development, population, social development, the advancement of women, and human settlements. In particular, the World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna in June 1993 underscored the fundamental principles of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as universal, indivisible and inalienable. When applying the concept of universal applicability to migrants, it should cover all migrants regardless of their legal status. In terms of indivisibility, it should help overcome the false dichotomy between civil and political rights on one hand and social, economic and cultural rights on the other. In addition, labelling some migrants as “illegal” would result in the denial of their legal recognition and protection, in complete contravention to the principle of inalienability of rights.
More recently, WCAR gave governments and civil society organizations the opportunity to identify the victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, create consensus on the implementation of remedial actions and also devise the best preventive measures. It also helped reinstate the basic demands on the rights of migrants that had been part of all the other previous UN conferences, while adding new demands that reflect current changes in international migration.
The World Conference unequivocally condemned racism and discrimination against migrants and deplored the stereotyping and racial profiling of migrants. It also censured the victimization and exclusion of migrants, especially women and children. Equally important, WCAR not only recognized xenophobia against non-nationals, migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers as one of the main sources of contemporary racism, but also acknowledged that these violations take place within a context of institutional, discriminatory, xenophobic and racist practices and policies.
States have agreed to facilitate family reunification and integration of migrants into their host societies, and to take into account the need for family members to have independent legal status. At the same time, States committed themselves to incorporate a gender perspective in all their programmes of action against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. WCAR called for special attention to be given to upholding the rights of domestic workers and protecting them against violence, prejudice and discrimination.
WCAR highlighted the importance of granting migrants equal treatment before the law. It also called upon States to ensure that migrant workers would exercise without any hindrances their rights to receive fair remuneration, work in safe and healthy conditions, unionize and bargain collectively, and work in an environment free of any discriminatory, racist, or xenophobic policies and behaviour. As trafficked persons, smuggled migrants and domestic workers are unduly exposed to ill treatment and exploitation in dangerous and poorly paid jobs, States were called upon to also extend to them full protection as stipulated in international human rights standards.
WCAR urged States to develop and strengthen anti-racist and gender-sensitive human rights training for public officials such as immigration officials, border police and staff of detention centres and prisons, personnel in the administration of justice, health-care and teachers.
NGOS AND HUMAN RIGHTS OF MIGRANTS
Worldwide, many NGOs provide direct services to migrants and members of their families, lobby their local and national authorities on migration legislation, advocate for full participation in policy making that affects the lives of migrants, and perform public education and awareness-raising campaigns. The advocacy work carried out by national, regional and international NGOs at the WCAR illustrates some of the concerns and aspirations of civil society organizations at large fighting for the rights of migrants as well as refugees, and asylum-seekers. During the WCAR preparatory process, NGOs set up a Migration, Refugees, Asylum-Seekers and Internally Displaced Persons Caucus, where NGO representatives shared experiences, coordinated lobbying activities and began preparing for follow-up to WCAR (see NGLS Roundup 82). Currently, approximately 400 organizations in the Caucus share information and campaign strategies, and monitor the follow-up.
Through their statements, background documents, and lobbying activities at WCAR, NGOs called for combating the xenophobic treatment of migrants and other non-nationals as it represents one of the most serious forms of contemporary racism. They stressed the need to protect the rights of all migrants, putting special emphasis on safeguarding the rights of undocumented migrants. They objected to the usual characterization of migrants, who are undocumented or in an irregular situation, as “illegal,” as such terminology denotes the application of discriminatory policies that leave migrants without any legal protection.
NGOs also condemned restrictive immigration policies and narrow governmental interpretations of migration laws, which result in migrants clandestinely entering a country. NGOs opposed the resultant criminalization of those migrants who had not been offered legal means of entry to a host country, and as a corrective measure, called for the right of undocumented migrants to benefit from individual and collective programmes of regularization.
NGOs also advocated for recognition of the multicultural, multiracial, multiethnic and multireligious nature of most societies, and the positive economic, social and cultural contributions of migrants to both countries of origin and destination. They pushed for setting up gender-sensitive national programmes responsible for guaranteeing the migrants' equal access to basic social security and services.
Most of these demands and recommendations concerning migrant issues were incorporated into the final document of WCAR, which includes 45 paragraphs that reflect the work carried out by NGOs throughout the WCAR process, in cooperation with like-minded governments. In consequence, migrants' rights advocates are demanding that governments honour the commitments made in Durban through the implementation of the follow-up plans, which will include the work of the newly created United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights' Anti-Discrimination Unit (see Go Between 89). NGOs are calling for the unhindered movement of migrant workers across international borders in recognition of the right of people to mobility and return, as well as the disruptive effect of global capital and financial investment on local communities, and its role in inducing migration. NGOs argue that in order to address the root causes of migration, the right of all to socially just and sustainable development must be recognized so that one day, migration will not be seen for many as the only option for survival.
Sandra Aragón, NGO Liaison Officer, Anti-Discrimination Unit, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, telephone +41-22/917 9393, e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>, website (www.unhchr.ch)
Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants, OHCHR, e-mail <email@example.com> (please include in the subject box: Special Rapporteur HR Migrants), website (www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mmig.htm)
Questionnaire for Allegations of Violations of Migrants’ Human Rights, website (www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mmig-quest.htm)
International Protection Division, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, PO Box 2500, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland, telephone +41-22/739 8973, fax +41-22/739 7354, e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>, website (www.unhcr.ch)
International Migration Branch, International Labour Office (ILO), 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, telephone +41-22/799 6667, fax +41-22/799 8836, e-mail <email@example.com>, website (www.ilo.org)
International Organization for Migration, 15 route des Morillons/PO Box 71, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland, telephone +41-22/717 9111, fax +41-22/798 6150, e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>, website (www.iom.int)
The International Migration Policy Program (IMP), Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, telephone +41-22/917 7832, fax +41-22/920 2222, e-mail <email@example.com>, website (www.impprog.ch)
Global Campaign for Ratification of Migrants Rights Convention, Campaign Secretariat, Migrants Rights International (MRI), CP 135, 15 Route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, telephone +41-22/917 7842 e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org>, website (www.migrantsrights.org)
NGO Portal for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Migrants, website (www.december18.net)
This edition of NGLS Roundup was prepared by the United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS). The NGLS Roundup is produced for NGOs and others interested in the institutions, policies and activities of the UN system and is not an official record.