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GLOSSARY

Anganwadi

Courtyard in Hindi. Anganwadi workers are community-based workers in Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in India

Bayley score

Performance on the Bayley tests of motor and mental development

Bitot's spots

Lesions of the conjunctiva that occur in vitamin A deficiency

Body mass index

A measure of adult nutritional status, essentially thinness; defined as bodyweight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared (kg/m2)

Dais

Midwives (Pakistan)

Development quotient

The conversion of raw scores of development to standardized scores; e.g. for motor or mental development.

Eclampsia

Maternal convulsions in late pregnancy; one symptom of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

Electrolytic iron

Iron produced by electrolysis; used for fortification

Elemental iron

A generic term for iron powders produced by various processes (e.g. H-reduced, electrolytic, carbonyl, atomized) and used as food fortificants.

Grama Niladhari

Administrative unit (Sri Lanka)

Height-for-age

An indicator of the degree of stunting of a child (see below), defined as his/her height in relation to the median height of a reference population of that age.

Intrauterine growth retardation

Birthweight below a given low percentile limit for gestational age (e.g., birthweight less than 10th percentile for gestational age); typically reflects inadequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the foetus.

Jaggery

Raw sugar

Low birthweight

Weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth.

Megaloblastic anaemia

An anaemia characterized by the presence of large, nucleated red blood cells, as occurs in severe folate or vitamin B12 deficiency.

Odds ratio

The ratio of the odds of a condition or disease in an exposed population to the odds of the same condition or disease in a nonexposed population.

Phytates

Phytic acid combined with minerals. These constitute 1-2% of the weight of whole grain cereals, nuts, seeds and legumes, and impair mineral absorption from these foods.

Population-attributable risk

In an exposed population of those who have a condition or disease, the proportion for whom this is attributed to being in the exposed (vs. nonexposed) group.

Ponderal index

Weight/length3; an indicator of wasting in young infants.

Pre-eclampsia

Development, during pregnancy, of hypertension with proteinuria and/or oedema.

Prelacteal feeding

The potentially harmful practice of delaying breastfeeding, and feeding the newborn such foods as milk, honey, or sugar water. These prelacteal feeds are unnecessary and can introduce infection in the baby. They also interfere with the physiology of lactation and delay establishment of breastmilk.

Primagravidae

Women who are in their first pregnancy.

Raven's progressive matrices

A non-verbal IQ score that is allegedly free from culture bias.

Relative risk

The ratio of the probability of a condition or disease in an exposed population to the probability of the same condition or disease in a nonexposed population.

Samurdhi

A poverty alleviation programme in Sri Lanka

Small-for-gestational-age

At or below the 10th percentile of a birthweight-for-gestational-age curve

Stunting

The anthropometric index 'height-for-age' reflects linear growth achieved pre - and postnatally, with deficits indicating longterm, cumulative effects of inadequacies of nutrition and/or health. Shortness in height refers to a child who exhibits low height-for-age that may reflect either normal variation in growth or a deficit in growth. Stunting refers only to shortness that is a deficit, or linear growth that has failed to reach genetic potential as a result, most proximally, of the interaction between poor diet and disease. Stunting is defined as low height-for-age; i.e., below 2 standard deviations (or 2 Z-scores) of the median value of the National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization International Growth Reference for length- or height-for-age

Teratogenic

Causing abnormal foetal development, such as birth defects.

Thalassaemia minor

Thalassaemias are inherited disorders in which haemoglobin synthesis is impaired. Thalassaemia minor is the heterozygous form and is usually asymptomatic, with a mild hypochromic, macrocytic anaemia.

Thana

Administrative district in Bangladesh (see "union")

Thriposha

Supplementary feeding programme in Sri Lanka

Total goitre rate

The prevalence of goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland) in a specific population group, usually expressed as a percentage. Goitre reflects significant iodine deficiency in the population.

Underweight

The anthropometric index 'weight-for-age' represents body mass relative to age. Weight-for-age is influenced by the height of the child and his or her weight and is thus a composite of stunting and wasting (which makes its interpretation difficult). In the absence of wasting, both weight-for-age and height-for-age reflect the long term nutrition and health experience of the individual or population. General lightness in weight refers to a child having a low weight-for-age. Lightness may represent either normal variation or a deficit. Underweight specifically refers to lightness that is a deficit and is defined as low weight-for-age, i.e.; below 2 standard deviations (or 2 Z-scores) of the median value of the National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization International Growth Reference for weight-for-age.

Undernutrition

A condition in which the body contains lower than normal amounts of one or more nutrients.

Union

Administrative unit (Bangladesh)

Wasting

A recent and severe process that has produced a substantial weight loss, usually as a consequence of acute starvation and/or severe disease. Chronic dietary deficit or disease can also lead to wasting. The anthropometric index 'weight-for-height' reflects body weight relative to height. Thinness refers to low weight-for-height and may indicate normal variation or a deficit in weight. Wasting refers to thinness that is a deficit, defined as low weight-for-height, i.e., below 2 standard deviations (or 2 Z-scores) of the median value of the National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization International Growth Reference for weight-for-height. The statistically expected prevalence of wasting (as with underweight and stunting) is between 2-3%, given the normal distribution of wasting rates.

Weight-for-age

An indicator of the degree of underweight of a child (see above), defined as his/her weight in relation to the median weight of a reference population of that age.

Weight-for-height

An indicator of the degree of wasting of a child (see above), defined as his/her weight in relation to the median height of a reference population of that age.

Z-score

The deviation of an individual's value from the median value of a reference population, divided by the standard deviation of the reference population.


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