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Tables and Figures

Table 1: Information Available on Total Refugee/Displaced Populations




Population Numbers




Comments

Situation

Condition

Total





I: High Prev

IIa: High Risk

IIb: Mod Risk

IIc: No Critical

III: Unknown


Change from Jun. 98

Nutr Stat*


Sub-Saharan Africa










1. Angola


300,000

350,000



650,000

-100,000

det.

Numbers affected are difficult to estimate. Areas controlled by UNITA are of particular concern

2. Great Lakes Region











Burundi



222,000



222,000

-448,000

imp.

No. of IDPs decreasing as security improves; nutritional situation also improving in many areas


Congo/Brazzaville


100,000

113,000



213,000

158000

det.

No hard data available, but prob. that the IDPs in the inaccessible regions at high risk (nos. unknown).


E Dem Rep of Congo

41,000

235,000

380,000


132,000

788,000

167,000

det.

IDPs in Kivu maybe at high risk, others prob. less risk. Angolan refugees have high mortality rates.


Rwanda



690,000



690,000

140,000

stat.

Increased number of IDPs in the North, Mixed reports about their nutritional status


Tanzania




328,000


328,000

-1,000

stat.

Nos. of rets. from DRC may be greater. 1.14 million drought affected people not shown.

3. Ethiopia




532,000


532,000

243,300

imp.

The IDPs and the refugees are at low risk. People in the Somali region may be at high risk (not shown).

4. Kenya




178,000


178,000

-1,000

stat.

Mortality rates and wasting prevalences relatively low.

5. Liberia



495,000



495,000

286,000 ++

imp.

IDPs may still be at risk. Relatively high wasting seen in refugee camps in most recent surveys.

6. Sierra Leone


200,000

200,000



400,000

100,000

det.

No hard data available, but is probable that the IDPs in the inaccessible regions may be at high risk.

7. Guinea-Conakry/Cote d'Ivoire




571,000


571,000

-183,000

imp.

Dec. in nos. due to repatriation to Liberia. Improvement in the nut. situation of the refugees in Guinea.

8. Guinea-Bissau




350,000


350,000

not shown before

det.

New IDPs who require food assistance, but nutritional status is not critical.

9. Somalia


300,000

400,000



700,000

-300,000

det.

Dec. in nos. as flood emerg. over. High risk in some areas (Bay & Bakool). Next harvest may fail.

10. Sudan


1,165,000

1,435,000

121,000


2,721,000

200,000

det.

BEG popn. higher risk than others, expect pockets all over country. Note that hungry season is beginning.

11. Uganda



347,000

174,000


521,000

-97,000

stat.

Nos. of IDPs decreasing as security improves.

12. Zambia




34,000

10,000

44,000

10,000

stat.

Increase due to recent influx of Congolese refugees - their nutritional status is unknown.

Total (Sub-Saharan Africa)

41,000

2,300,000

4,632,000

2,288,000

142,000

9,403,000

-111,700



Asia/ Europe (Selected Situations)










13. Afghanistan Region



1,290,000

116,000


1,406,000

153,000


Anecdotal evidence suggests Afghan IDPs at risk.

14. Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal




98,105


98,105

4,105

stat.

Increase in total due to births

15. Bangladesh




22,300


22,300

2,000

stat.

Increase in total due to births

17. Kossovo




240,000


240,000

not shown before

stat.

New IDPs. Nutritional situation stable at the moment

++ There may have been an underestimation of those requiring aid in RNIS 24

I: High Prev - Those reported with high prevalences of malnutrition (where available >20% wasting) and/or micronutrient deficiency diseases and sharply elevated

IIa: High Risk - At high nutritional risk, limited data available, population likely to contain pockets of malnutrition (e.g. wasting).

IIb: Mod Risk - Moderate risk, may be data available, pockets of malnutrition may exist.

IIc: Not Critical - Probably not at heightened nutritional risk.

III: Unknown - No information on nutritional status available.

* Indicates status of nutritional situation. Imp=improving; det=deteriorating; stat=static (i.e. no change).

Table 2: Summary of Origin and Location of Major Populations of Refugees, Returnees and Displaced People in Africa March 1999 - RNIS #26 (population estimates in thousands)


To/In

From

Angola

Burundi

Congo/Brazzaville

Cote d'Ivoire

Dem Rep Congo

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Guinea Bissau

Guinea conakry

Kenya

Liberia

Rwanda

Sierra Leone

Somalia

Sudan

Tanzania

Uganda

Zambia

TOTAL

Angola

650


8


140













32

830

Burundi


222



37











260



519

Congo/Brazzaville



200


16














216

Cote d'Ivoire



















0

Dem Rep Congo





500







30




53

3

12

598

Eritrea















121




121

Ethiopia







272



5









277

Guinea Bissau








350











350

Guinea conakry



















0

Kenya







5












5

Liberia




100





120


400








620

Rwanda



5


35







660




15

15


730

Sierra Leone




1





350


95


400






846

Somalia







195



133




700





1,028

Sudan





60


60



40





2600


156


2,916

Tanzania



















0

Uganda

















347


347

Zambia



















0

TOTAL

650

222

213

101

788

0

532

350

470

178

495

690

400

700

2721

328

521

44

9,403


NOTES:

(1) This chart is intended to include major population groups in Africa (i.e. over 100,000 people affected from country of origin).

(2) Boxes on the diagonal (shaded) show internally displaced populations (total = 7.3 million).

(3) Numbers referred to in the text are usually by the country where the population is located (i.e. column totals).

For the regional situations of Burundi/Rwanda and Liberia/Sierra Leone the description is by country of origin (i.e. row totals).

Numbers of Refugees and Internally Displaced in Sub-Sahran Africa and Estimated Nutritional Risk Over Time

Annex I: Results of Surveys Quoted in March 1999 RNIS Report (#26) - usually children 6-59 months

Survey Area

Survey Conducted by

Date

% Wasted*

% Severely Wasted*

Oedema (%)

Crude Mortality
(/10,000/day)

Under
5 Mortality
(/10,000/day)

Measles Immunisation Coverage

1. Angola










a. Malange

MSF-H

Jan-99

11

4.5






b. Huambo

SCF-UK

Jan-99

14.7

7.3





2. Burundi/Rwanda (Great Lakes) Region










a. Cibitoke Province, Burundi

CONCERN

Oct-98

5.6

0.8

0.4



19.2


b. Gitega province (north), Burundi

OXFAM

Nov-98

12.9

2.0


0.57

0.67

63



Gitega province (south), Burundi

OXFAM

Nov-98

8.3

1.4


0.79

1.23

64


c. Karusi, Burundi

MSF-B

Nov-98

6.7

1.7


0.57


68.3


d. Bubanza province, Burundi

CAD

Aug-98

11.6

3.9




41


e. Goma, DRC


Jan-99

3.0

1.0






f. Kisangani, DRC

MSF-H

Jan-99

13.4

9.1

8.7

0.97

2



g. Kisenge, DRC

MSF-B

Feb-99

25.0

12.8

11.6



26.8


g. Ruhengeri, Rwanda

MOH/MSF-B

Feb-99

10.7

6.4

4.7



92


h. Ngara, Tanzania

UNHCR

Sep-98

2.8

0.1





4. Kenya










a. Dadaab - Ifo camp

UNHCR/MSF-B

Sep-98

11.6

1.6







Dagahaley Camp

UNHCR/MSF-B

Sep-98

11.0

2.1







Hagadera Camp

UNHCR/MSF-B

Sep-98

10.5

1.9






b. Kakuma camp

UNHCR/IRC

Oct-98

15.6

1.7





5. Liberia










a. Monrovia

ACF

Jun-98

16.3

3.1

0.0



39.7


b. Vahun

MSF-Epi.

Jun-98

21

5

1.0

1.8

6.1

28.3


c. Kolahun

MSF-Epi.

Jun-98

7

1

0.8

0.9

4.8

37.9

6. Sierra Leone










a. Porto Loko

CAD

Oct-98

11.4

3.6





7. Guinea-Conakry and Cote d'Ivoire










a. Gueckadou, Guinea

ACF

May-98

18.6

5






b. Gueckadou

DPS/ACF/MSF

Sep-99

7.9

1.3

0.8



80.0

9. Somalia










a. Qansaxdheere town, Bay

FSAU

Feb-99

32

10








(MUAC<125mm)

(MUAC<110mm)





10. Sudan (please see separate Annex I+)









11. Uganda










a. Impevi camp

ACF-US

May-98

5.4

1




56.1


b. Impevi camp

ACF-US

Oct-98

9.7

1.9






c. Rhino camp

ACF-US

May-98

5.9

0.9




38.9


d. Rhino camp

ACF-US

Oct-98

9.7

1.0






e. Kirayandongo camp

ACF-US

May-98

10.

0.2




33


f. Kirayandongo camp

ACF-US

Nov-98

6.8

0.7






g. Kyangwali camp

ACF-US

May-98

0.4

0.0






h. Kyangwali camp

ACF-US

Nov-98

0.7

0.0






I. Orunchinga camp

ACF-US

Jun-98

1.5

0.2




42.0


j. Orunvhinga camp

ACF-US

Nov-98

2.0

0.2






k. Nakivale camp

ACF-US

Jun-98

6.8

0.5




49.7


l. Nakivale camp

ACF-US

Nov-98

2.9

0.0






m. Adjumani camp -A

ACF-US

Apr-98

5.0

0.8




40.4


n. Adjumani camp -A

ACF-US

Oct-98

7.0

0.4




43


o. Adjumani camp -B

ACF-US

Apr-98

7.5

0.9




42.2


p. Adjumani camp B-

ACF-US

Oct-98

7.8

0.7




40.0


q. Adjumani camp C

ACF-US

Apr-98

3.6

1.0




46.8


r. Adjumani camp -C

ACF-US

Oct-98

7.3

1.1




60.8


s. Palorinya camp

ACF-US

Apr-98

7.1

1




37.4


t. Palorinya camp

ACF-US

Oct-98

8.2

1.2





15. Bhutanese in Nepal










a. Camps

UNHCR

Dec-98

4.3 (wfh)

0.5 (wfh)





16. Kosovo










a. Province-wide

ACF-UK

Dec-98

2.0

0.2

0.0




17. DPRK










a. Nationwide

Gov/UNICEF/WFP/ECHO

Oct-98

15.6

5.2





* wt/ht unless specified; cut-off=n.s. means not specified but usually-2SD wt/ht for wasting and -3SD wt/ht for severe wasting

**Oedema is included in this figure.

NOTE: see box on back cover for guidance in interpretation of indicators.

Annex I for the Sudan: Results of Surveys conducted in non-GoS controlled areas of Northern Bahr-El-Ghazal (table S1)

Location

County

Survey conducted by

Date

% Wasted*

% Severely Wasted*

N
(sampling method)

Panthou and Toch (2 payams)

Gogrial

World Vision

April 98

40.8 (<80% wfh)

13.8 (<70% wfh)

530 (cluster)

Pathou and Toch (5 payams)

Gogrial

World Vision

Nov 98

11.7 (<80% wfh)

1.6 (<70% wfh)

620 (cluster)

Panthou

Aweil East

UNICEF

June 98

62.2

24.3

637 (all children)

Panthou

Aweil East

MSF-Epic.

Aug 98

71.3

48.5

459 (cluster)


- residents




63




- displaced




83



Ajiep

Gogrial

MSF-Epic.

July 98

80.3

48.5

460 (cluster)

Ajiep

Gogrial

MSF-Epic.

Oct 98

48

13

450 (cluster)

Ajiep

Gogrial

MSF-Epic.

Jan 99

14.6

1.5

472( cluster)

Acumcum

Wau

UNICEF

June 98

79.3

47.0

492 (all children)

Pakor

Gogrial

UNICEF

June 98

61.4 (<80% wfh)

26.4 (<70%wfh)

42 5(all children)

Mape

Wau

UNICEF

June 98

39.1

12.9

680 (all children)

Mapel

Wau

MSF-Epic.

Aug 98

44.6

20.6

438 (cluster sample)


- residents




33




- displaced




59



Mapel

Wau

MSF-Epic

Dec 98

13.1

2.6

457 (cluster)

Wathmouk

Aweil East

UNICEF

June 98

46.7

10.3

107 (rapid assessment)

Wunrok

Twic

UNICEF

June 98

52.7

14.3

537 (rapid assessment)








Wunrok

Twic

UNICEF

Oct. 98

19.3

2.8

145 (cluster)

Marial Bai

Aweil East

UNICEF

June 98

28.4

6.8

750 (rapid assessment)

Marial Bai

Aweil East

UNICEF

Oct. 98

38.7

9.9

545 (rapid assessment)

Malualkon

Aweil East

UNICEF

June 98

30.4

7.8

102 (rapid assessment)

Dhiak

Aweil East

UNICEF

June 98

58.8

26.3

114 (rapid assessment)

Adet

Gogrial

Merlin

Jan 99

10.2

1.5

482(cluster)

Malual, W. Ayat, Gomjuer payams

Aweil West

Concern

Jan. 99

14.3

1.9

899 (cluster)

*wt/ht unless specified; usually <-2SD wt/ht for wasting and <-3SD wt/ht for severe wasting

Annex I for the Sudan: Results of Surveys conducted in non- GoS controlled areas of Eastern Bahr-El-Ghazal - Lakes area (table S2)

Location

County

Survey conducted by

Date

% Wasted*

% Severely Wasted*

N
(sampling method)

Rumbek - Town

Rumbek

Oxfam

June 98

49.6

18.1

276 (cluster


Agangrial




28.9

6.3

295 (cluster)

Rumbek - Town

Rumbek

Oxfam

Nov 98

19.2

0.9

665 (cluster)


Agangrial




19.2

3.2

560 (cluster)

Yirol

Yirol

Medair

May 98

26 (<80% wfh)

5 (<70% wfh)

677 (cluster)

Yirol (4 payams)

Yirol

Concern/ Medair

Sep 98

17.7

2.2

865 (cluster)

Tonj (payams)

Tonj

World Vision

May 98

33.4 (<80% wfh)

9.9 (<70% wfh)

591(cluster)

Tonj (5 payams)

Tonj

World Vision

Nov 98

18.3 (<80% wfh)

4.4 (<70%wfh)

545 (cluster)

*wt/ht unless specified; usually <-2SD wt/ht for wasting and <-3SD wt/ht for severe wasting

Annex I for the Sudan: Results of Surveys conducted in GoS controlled areas of South Sudan (table S3)

Location

County

Survey conducted by

Date

% Wasted*

% Severely Wasted*

Upper Nile

Bentiu

UNICEF

April 98

31.8

6.8


Rubkona

UNICEF

April 98

26.7

7.5


Mayom

UNICEF

April 98

24.0

5.3

Equatoria

Terekeka

Oxfam

Jan. 98

41.4

9.5


Terekeka

Oxfam

Nov. 98

5.6

0.45


Torit

UNICEF

April 98

23.4

5.8


Liggi

UNICEF

April 98

6.4

1.7

Bahr El Ghazal

Wau (residents)

UNICEF

April 98

29.0

9.3


Wau (IDPs)

UNICEF

Aug. 98

71.6

41.3

Note: these tables were provided by WFP in Khartoum. No further information is available on the methods employed.

Annex I for the Sudan: Results of Surveys conducted in North Sudan (table S4)

Location

County

Survey conducted by

Date

% Wasted*

% Severely Wasted*

North & South Kordofan

Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

Feb. 98

17.9

4.3


Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

April 98

35.2

2.5


Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

May 98

33.7

4.9


Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

June 98

21.8

5.7


Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

July 98

18.8

5.3


Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

Aug. 98

21.1

2.9


Sidra IDP Camps

SCF-US

Sep. 98

12.1

1.8


Kujuria IDP camps

SCF-US

Sep.98

18.0

6.4


Dilling IDP camps

SCF-US

April 98

8.5

1.8


Dilling IDP camps

SCF-US

Aug. 98

21.8

5.0


Rashad IDP camps

SCF-US

Aug. 98

11.25

1.0


Rashad IDP camps

SCF-US

April 98

12.8

3.5

West Kordofan

En Nahud

CARE

Feb. 98

20.4

2.1

Khartoum IDPs

Karton Kassala

ADRA/MOH

June 98

15.7

3.4


Umbadda

ADRA/MOH

June 98

12.5

1.0


Es Salam camp

ADRA/MOH

Feb. 98

12.0

0.7


Es Salam Camp

ADRA/MOH

May 98

12.4

1.3

West Darfur

Malha

ADRA/MOH

May 98

14.3



Malha

ADRA/MOH

Sep. 98

12.8


Note: these tables were provided by WFP in Khartoum. No further information is available on the methods employed.

Notes on Annex 1

1. Angola

a. Malange. This survey was conducted in Malange by MSF-Holland and WHO in January 1999. 863 children are included in the survey. Wasting was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe acute malnutrition as <-3Z scores. No further information is currently available.

b. Huambo. This survey was carried out by SCF-UK in Huambo amongst children of displaced families only in January 1999. Wasting was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe wasting as <-3Z scores. No further information is currently available.

2. Great Lakes Region
a. Cibitoke. This survey was conducted by CONCERN in October 1998 in Cibitoke province. Standard cluster methodology was employed. 835 children were measured.. Acute malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe acute malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Oedema was given separately. Stunting was defined as <-2Z scores and/or oedema. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by an immunisation card. CMR was collected retrospectively over a one year period.

b. Gitega. This survey was conducted by Oxfam in Gitega province in November 1998. The information was reported in an IRIN report (17/02/99) and no further details are currently available.

c. Karusi. This survey was conducted by MSF-B in November 1998 in Karusi province. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed. 919 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by an immunisation card. CMR was collected retrospectively over a three month period.

d. Bubanza. This survey was conducted by CAD in August 1998 in Bubanza province. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed. 900 children were measured. Malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by an immunisation card.

e. Goma. The information was reported in an IRIN report (24/02/99) and no further details are currently available.

f. Kisangani. This survey was conducted by MSF-H in January 1999 in Kisangani. 978 children were measured. Malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Oedema was given separately. No further details are available.

g. Kisenge. This survey was conducted by MSF-B in February 1999 amongst Angolan refugee children. Standard two-stage cluster methodology was employed. 929 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores and/or oedema. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation was confirmed by card.

h. Ruhengeri. This survey was conducted by MOH/SCF-UK/MSF-B in February 1999 in nine communes in Ruhengeri prefecture. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed 900 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe acute malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Chronic malnutrition was defined as ht/age <-2Z scores and severe chronic malnutrition as ht/age <-3Z scores. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by card.

i. Ngara. This survey was conducted by UNHCR in Ngara camps in September 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methodology was employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting was defined as <-2Z scores and severe wasting was defined as <-3Z scores. No further information is available.

4. Kenya
a. Daadaab. This survey was conducted by MSF-B/UNHCR in the three camps in the Dadaab region in September 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methodology was employed. A total of 2457 children were measured. Wasting was defined as <-2Z scores and/or oedema; severe wasting as <-3Z scores and/or oedema. Oedema was also reported separately.

b. Kakuma. This survey was conducted by IRC/UNHCR in Kakuma camp in September 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methodology was employed. A total of 900 children were measured. Wasting was defined as <-2Z scores; severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores. No further information is available.

c. Dadaab. This survey was conducted by CDC/UNHCR in Dadaab camp in November 1998. A systematic sampling method was employed. 508 adolescents aged 10-19 were chosen for the study, 392 participated. Anaemia was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer.

d. Kakuma. This survey was conducted by CDC/UNHCR in Kakuma camp in November 1998. A systematic sampling method was employed. 445 adolescents aged 10-19 were chosen for the study, 391 participated. Anaemia was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer.

5. Liberia
a. Monrovia. This survey was conducted by ACF in May/June 1998 in displaced shelters in Monrovia. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed. 914 children were measured. Acute alnutrition was measured as <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores and/or oedema. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by a card.

b. The Food Security of Returnees: Cape Mount County. This study was conducted in Jne/july 1998 in Cape Mount County by SCF-UK. Qualitative methods were employed to collect the relevant information.

c. Vahun. This survey was conducted by MSF/Epicentre in June 1998 in Vahun camp. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed. 890 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was measured as <-2Z scores and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by a card. Mortality was assessed retrospectively over varying periods of time (length since arrival in camp).

d. Kolahun. This survey was conducted by MSF/Epicentre in June 1998 in Kolahun camp. Systematic sampling was employed. 545 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was measured as <-2Z scores and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by a card. Mortality was assessed retrospectively over varying periods of time (length since arrival in camp).

6. Sierra Leone
a. Porto Loko. This survey was conducted by CAD in October 1998 in Porto Loko. Standard two-stage cluster methodology was employed. 900 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was measured as <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores and/or oedema.
7. Guinea-Conakry
a. Gueckedou. This survey was conducted by ACF in May 1998 in Gueckedou prefecture. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed. Acute malnutrition was measured as <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores and/or oedema. Oedema was given separately. No further details are available.

b. Gueckedou. This survey was conducted by ACF in September 1998 in Gueckedou prefecture. Standard two stage cluster methodology was employed. 926 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was measured as <-2Z scores and/or oedema and severe malnutrition as <-3Z scores and/or oedema. Oedema was given separately. Measles immunisation coverage was confirmed by a card.

8. Guinea Bissau
a. This is taken from a WFP technical report evaluating the nutritional situation in Guinea-Bissau in December 1998. Malnutrition was defined by MUAC (<110mm or <125mm). No further details are available.
9. Somalia
a. Qansaxdheere area. This survey was conducted by FSAU in close collaboration with UNICEF in Qansaxdheere area, Bay region in February 1999. The MUAC of 243 children whose heights were between 65-110cm were measured. Global malnutrition was defined as MUAC<125mm and/or oedema and severe acute malnutrition as MUAC<110mm and/or oedema. No further details are available
10. Sudan

No notes have been provided with the summary table for the surveys on Sudan in the interest of saving space (most of the surveys only report anthropometric data and no other information). The sampling method, sample size and definitions of wasting and severe wasting are included in the tables. Note that less information is available for certain surveys. This is because the data on these surveys were provided by WFP Khartoum and the author does not have the original reports.

11. Uganda

a. Impevi (May). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in May 1998. Systematic sampling methods were employed. 450 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together.

b. Impevi (October). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in October 1998.. Systematic sampling methods were employed 405 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

c. Rhino (May). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in May 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

d. Rhino (October). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in October 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

e. Kirayandongo (May). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in May 1998.. Systematic sampling methods were employed. 405 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

f. Kirayandongo (November). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in November 1998.. Systematic sampling methods were employed. 425 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

g. Kyangwali (May). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in May 1998.. Systematic sampling methods were employed. 239 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

h. Kyangwali (November). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in November 1998. Systematic sampling methods were employed. 269 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

i. Orunchinga (June). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in June 1998 according to standardised methods recommended by WHO/ UNICEF. 464 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

j. Orunchinga (November). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in November 1998.. Systematic sampling methods were employed. 440 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

k. Nakivale (June). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in June 1998. Exhaustive sampling methods were employed. 398 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

l. Nakivale (November). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in November 1998. Exhaustive sampling methods were employed. 340 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

m. Adjumani A (April). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in April 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

n. Adjumani A (October). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in October 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

o. Adjumani B (April). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in April 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 810 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

p. Adjumani B (October). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in October 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 810 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

q. Adjumani C (April). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in April 1998. Standard systematic sampling methods were employed. 390 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

r. Adjumani C (October). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in October 1998. Standard systematic methods were employed. 369 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

s. Palorinya (April). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in April 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

t. Palorinya (October). This survey was conducted by ACF-USA in October 1998. Standard two-stage cluster methods were employed. 900 children were measured. Wasting (wt/ht<-2SD) and oedema are reported together. Vaccination status was assessed by reference to the card.

u. An overview of Food security issues in Adjumani, Palorinya, Rhino Camp, Imvepi, Nakivale Refugee Settlements. ACF-USA August 1998. This survey involved collecting qualitative data on food security issues from focus group discussions, life histories of individual refugees and key informant interviews.

15. Bhutanese refugees in Nepal
a. This survey was conducted by SCF-UK in June 1998. Stratified random sampling methods were employed. 395 children were measured. Wasting was defined as <80% of weight-for-height and severe wasting was defined as <80% of weight-for-height. Measles immunisation was determined by reference to a vaccination card.
16. DPRK
a. This survey was conducted by Government/UNICEF/WFP/ECHO in DPRK conducted in 130 counties of a total of 212 in September/October 1998. 1762 children aged six months to seven years were measured. Acute malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-2Z scores and/or oedema was severe acute malnutrition was defined as wt/ht <-3Z scores and/or oedema. Stunting was defined as ht/age <-2Z scores and severe stunting as ht/age <-3Z scores.

b. Multiple Indicator Cluster was conducted by UNICEF in 130 counties of a total of 212 in September/October 1998. Anaemia was studied in 1787 children 6-84 months with a Hemocue. The birthweight of 1393 children was largely determined by mothers' recall.

17. Kossovo
a. Nutritional Anthropometric Survey in Kosovo, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Action Against Hunger-UK. This was a province wide survey conducted in December 1998/January 1999. Two-stage cluster sampling methods were employed. 922 children were measured. Acute malnutrition was defined as <-2z scores weight for height and/or oedema and severe acute malnutrition as <-3z scores weight for height and/or oedema. Oedema was recorded separately. Stunting was defined as <-2z scores height for age and severe stunting as <-3z scores height for age.

b. Food Security in Kosovo, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Action Against Hunger-UK. This was a province wide survey conducted in December 1998/January 1999. The survey was conducted as a complementary component of the nutrition and health survey. Qualitative methods were employed to collect the relevant information and included:- a household questionnaire, key informant discussions, market price monitoring and macro-economic data collection and analysis.

Seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa*

Country

Climate/Rainy Season/Harvest

Angola

Coastal area desert, SW semi-arid, rest of country: rains Sept-April

Burundi

Three crop seasons: Sept-Jan, Feb-Jun., and Jul-Aug.

CAR

Rains March-Nov

Djibouti

Arid Climate

Ethiopia

Two rainy seasons February to May and June to October

Kenya

N-E is semi-arid to arid, Central and SW rains: March-May and Nov-Dec.

Liberia

Rains March-Nov

Mozambique

Coast is semi-arid, rest wet-dry. Harvest May

Rwanda

Rains Feb-May with Aug. harvest and Sept-Nov with Jan harvest

Sierra Leone

Rains March-Oct.

Somalia

Two seasons: April to August (harvest) and October to January/February (harvest)

Sudan

Rains April-Oct.


Northern Rains begin May/June


Southern Rains begin March/April

Northern

Rains begin May/June

Southern

Rains begin March/April

Togo

Two rainy seasons in S, one in N. Harvest August

Uganda

Rains Mar-Oct.

Zaire

Tropical climate. Harvest in N: November; in S January

*SOURCES: FAO,"Food Supply Situation and Crop Prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa", Special Report; No 4/5, Dec. 90 plus various FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions.
Map of Africa


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