Antibiotic Resistance Markers: GM usually employs virus genes to "smuggle" in the inserted genes. Antibiotic resistance genes are used as markers to track the gene carrying the trait being transferred.
Biotechnology: Overall term for the scientific techniques that use living cells and organisms to produce new foods and chemicals for both medical and agricultural uses. The term bioengineered foods is also used for crops and processed foods produced this way.
BST: (recombinant Bovine Somatotropin, rBST, also called Bovine Growth Hormone, rBGH), the first genetically engineered animal hormone approved in the United States, is used to boost milk production in cows. Sold by Monsanto, it is banned in Canada and the European Union. Codex Alimentarius, the UN food standards body, has not certified that BST is safe.
Bt: bacillus thuringiensis, is a natural bacteria used by organic farmers to control pests. Bt-engineered crops (e. g. corn, potatoes) produce this toxin throughout the plant. Studies show that pollen from Bt corn can kill Monarch butterfly caterpillars and that Bt crops may be toxic to beneficial insects.
Gene/DNA: A section of DMA that codes for a specific biochemical function in a living organism, DNA is the double helix molecule that transmits hereditary traits contained in genetic material in chromosomes.
Genetic Engineering (GE): also known as gene splicing or recombinant DNA technology, takes the DNA of genes from one species and inserts them into another species to transfer a desired trait. Genetically engineered (GE) foods are those grown from seeds or containing ingredients altered through this process.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs or GM): A plant, animal, bacteria or other life form that has had its DNA artificially altered by new processes known collectively as genetic engineering.
GM Crops: The main GM food crops now in commercial cultivation are soya, corn (maize), canola (rape seed) potatoes and tomatoes. In the pipeline are rice, sugar beets and other foods. Animal feed is the principal market for GM crops. Genetic modification is generally used to improve plant resistance to pests and weed-killers. Whether destined for human or animal consumption, the environmental impact of GM crops is the same.
GM Foods, Gene Foods: Foods containing genetically modified ingredients, derivatives of GM ingredients or GM enzymes. Soybeans and corn are the most extensive GM crops and their derivatives can be found in an estimated 60% of all processed foods.
Novel Foods: Term used by the European Union and others for GM foods.
Precautionary Principle: Under the Rio Declaration of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit), governments must take a "better safe than sorry" approach to potential environmental and health risks, in which the burden of proof for a product's long-term safety falls to its producer.
Substantial Equivalence: The concept, used by the biotech industry and many regulatory agencies, that the composition of GM foods is not chemically different from conventional ones in ways that could affect their safety or nutritional value, and therefore require no special safety testing or labelling.
Transgenic: trans means "crossing from one place to another" and genie refers to genes. Adjective for an organism carrying foreign or artificially inserted genetic material.
"Terminator" Technology: Experimental technology that alters plant reproduction so that harvested seed will be sterile if farmers attempt to replant it.
REPORTS ON THE WORLD NUTRITION SITUATION
Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation: Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle, January 2000
Third Report on the World Nutrition Situation, December 1997
Update on the Nutrition Situation, 1996: Summary of Results for the Third Report on the World Nutrition Situation, late 1996 (out of print - but photocopy available)
Update on the Nutrition Situation, November 1994
Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation, Volume II, Country Data, March 1993
Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation, Volume I, Global and Regional Results, October 1992
Supplement on Methods and Statistics to the First Report on the World Nutrition Situation, December 1988 (out of print - but photocopy available)
First Report on the World Nutrition Situation, November 1987 (out of print - but photocopy available)
NUTRITION POLICY DISCUSSION PAPERS
Challenges for the 21st Century: A Gender Perspective on Nutrition Through the Life Cycle by P James, 5 Smitisiri, P Pinstrup-Anderson, R Pandya-Lorch, C Murray, A Lopez & and I Semega-Jenneh, April 1998 (NPP No. 17)
Nutrition and Poverty by S. Gillespie, N Hasan, S Osmani, U Jonsson, R Islam, D Chirmulay, V Vyas and R Gross, November 1997 (NPP No. 16)
How Nutrition Improves by S Gillespie, J Mason and R Martorell, July 1996 (SOA No. 15)
Controlling Vitamin A Deficiency by S Gillespie and J Mason, January 1994. (SOA No. 14)
Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries by G Beaton, R Martorell, KJ Aronson, B Edmonston, G McCabe, AC Ross, B Harvey, December 1993 (SOA No.13)
Nutritional Issues in Food Aid including papers by J Katona-Apte, J von Braun, G Beaton, J Rivera, P Musgrove, K Bailey, M Toole, August 1993 (SOA No. 12)
Nutrition and Population Links - Breastfeeding, Family Planning and Child Health including papers by S Huffman, R Martorell and K Merchant, R Short, and P Ramachandran, May 1992 (SOA No. 11)
Nutrition-Relevant Actions - Some Experiences from the Eighties and Lessons for the Nineties by S Gillespie and J Mason, October 1991 (SOA No. 10)
Controlling Iron Deficiency edited by S Gillespie, J Kevany, and J Mason. February 1991 (SOA No. 9)
Managing Successful Nutrition Programmes edited by J Jennings, S Gillespie, J Mason, M Lotfi and T Scialfa, October 1990 (SOA No. 8)
Appropriate Uses of Child Anthropometry by G Beaton, A Kelly, J Kevany, R Martorell, and J Mason, December 1990 (SOA No. 7)
Women and Nutrition including papers by J McGuire and B Popkin, M Chatterjee and J Lambert, J Quanine, P Kisanga, S Bajaj, H Ghassemi, October 1990 (SOA No. 6)
Malnutrition and Infection -A Review by A Tomkins and F Watson, October 1989 reprinted June 1993 (SOA No. 5)
Women's Role in Food Chain Activities and their Implications for Nutrition by G Holmboe-Ottesen, O Mascarenhas and M Wandel, May 1989 (SOA No. 4) (out of print - but photocopy available)
The Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders by B S Hetzel, March 1988 reprinted June 1993 (SOA No. 3)
Delivery of Oral Doses of Vitamin A to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency and Nutritional Blindness by K P West Jr and A Sommer, June 1987 reprinted June 1993 (SOA No. 2)
Nutrition Education: A state-of-the art review by RC Hornik, January 1985 (SOA No. 1) (out of print - but photocopy available)
REFUGEE NUTRITION INFORMATION SYSTEM
RNIS Reports on the nutrition situation of refugee and displaced populations - - issued every three months with an interim electronic nail update when warranted
Special supplements on the anthropometric assesment of the nutrition status in emergency situations of adolescents and adults are also available
Order our publications on line: http://acc.unsystem.org/scn/ or by Email: email@example.com
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SCN NEWS - A periodic review of developments
in international nutrition compiled from information available to the ACC/SCN,
published twice yearly. Contains features, news and views, programme news, and
reviews of publications (Distributed free of charge)
SCN News No. 18 July 1999 Human Rights arid the Right to Adequate Food: SCN's 26th Symposium Report.
SCN News No. 17 December 1998 Nutrition and HIV/AIDS inducting HIV, Infant Feeding, Micronutrients in HIV Transmission.
SCN News No, 16 July 1998 Nutrition of the School-Aged Child: A summary of Working Group discussions, Oslo 1998, Abstracts from the Symposium on Challenges for the 21st: Century: a Gender Perspective on Nutrition through the Life Cycle.
SCN News No. 15 December 1997 Effective Programmes in Africa for Improving Nutrition, the 10th Annual Martin J. Forman Lecture: How are we doing in International Nutrition?
SCN News No. 14 July 1997 The Nutrition: Challenge in the 21st Century: What Role for the United Nations? Meeting the Nutrition Challenge: A Call to Arms; Update on the Nutrition Situation, 1996; Poor Nutrition and Chronic Disease Part II; Effective Programmes in Africa for Improving Nutrition.
SCN News No. 13 late 1995 Interview with Dr A. Horwitz, SCN Chair, 1986-1995; Behavioural Change and Nutrition Programmes; Poor Nutrition and Chronic Disease Part I.
SCN News No.12 early 1995 The Role of Care in Nutrition - A Neglected Essential Ingredient; Summary of findings from the recently published ACC/SCN "Update on the Nutrition Situation, 1994"; Specific Deficiencies Versus Growth Failure: Type Land Type II Nutrients; and Enrichment of Food Staples Through Plant Breeding. A New Strategy for Fighting Micronutrient Malnutrition. (out of print - but photocopy available)
SCN News No. 11 mid 1994 Maternal and Child Nutrition: Adolescent Growth; Prepregnancy Nutritional Status and its Impact on Birthweight; Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy as it Affects Infant Growth, Development and Health; The Consequences of Iron Deficiency and Anaemia in Pregnancy on Maternal Health, the Foetus and the Infant; Impact of Maternal Infection on Foetal Growth and Nutrition; Maternal Micronutrient Malnutrition: Effects on Breast Milk and Infant Nutrition, and Priorities for Intervention; Vitamin A Deficiency in the Mother-Infant Dyad; Maternal Protein-Energy Malnutrition and Breastfeeding; and Maternal Nutritional Depletion.
SCN News No.10 late 1993 Nutrition and Food Aid, Nutrition and Human Rights, The Nutrition Transition.
SCN News No.9 mid 1993- Focus on Micronutrients. Features: Addressing Micronutrient Malnutrition, Micronutrient Deficiency - The Global Situation, Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries, Zinc Deficiency - Is It Widespread but Under-Recognized? (out of print - but photo copy available)
SCN News No.8 late 1992 Highlights of the World Nutrition Situation, Food Prices and Nutrition, Food Security and Nutrition 1971-91 - Lessons Learned and Future Priorities, Long-Term Effects of Improved Childhood Nutrition.
SCN News No.7 mid 1991 Refugees' Nutrition Crisis, Breastfeeding, Birth Spacing and Nutrition, Community-Based Development - From a Programme Towards a Movement, Micronutrient Intakes, Incomes and Prices. Supplement: Some Options for Improving Nutrition in the 1990s - Reviews experience of policies and programmes, and grouping nutrition issues, leads to identifying options as building blocks for future action.
SCN News No.6 late 1990 Preventing Anaemia, Policies to Improve Nutrition - What Was Done in the 80s, Weaning Foods - New Uses of Traditional Methods. (out of print - but photocopy available)
SCN News No.5 early 1990 Nutrition and School Performance, Uses of Anthropometry, Malnutrition and Infection (Part II), Flows of External Resources for Nutrition (out of print - but photocopy available)
SCN News No.4 late 1989 Update on the Nutrition Situation, Women and Nutrition, Malnutrition and Infection (Part I), Targeted Food Subsidies. (out of print- but photocopy available) SCN News No.3 early 1989 Does Cash Cropping Affect Nutrition?, Nutrition in Times of Disaster.
SCN News Nos.1 and 2 March 1988 Vitamin A Deficiency, Urbanization, World Nutrition Situation, Economic adjustment (but of print - but photocopy available).
COUNTRY CASE STUDIES - several are out of print but photocopies can be made available
Brazil: The improvement in Child Nutritional Status in Brazil: How Did it Occur? by RF Iunes & CA Monteiro. September 1993.
Egypt: Review of Trends, Policies and Programmes Affecting Nutrition and Health in Egypt (1970-1990), by H Nassar, W Moussa, A Kamel & A Miniawi. January 1992
India: Nutrition in India, by V Reddy, M Shekar, P Rao & S Gillespie. December 1992
Indonesia: Economic Growth, Equity and Nutritional Improvement in Indonesia, by IT Soekirman, GS Idrus Jus'at & F Jalal. December 1992
Tanzania: Nutrition-Relevant Actions in Tanzania, by FP Kavishe. April 1993
Thailand: Nutrition and Health in Thailand: Trends and Actions, by Y Kachondham, P Winichagoon & K Tontisirin. December 1992
Zimbabwe: Nutrition-Relevant Actions in Zimbabwe, by J Tagwireyi, T Jayne & N Lenneiye. December 1992
Many thanks to all those who contributed to this issue!
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