As developing countries raise their standards of living, take on a growing share of manufacturing and engage in a wider range of industrial activity, energy use is likely to continue its upward trajectory. The question that arises is how to accommodate rising living standards in developing countries while moderating the pernicious effects of energy use. U N I DO’s Industrial Development Report 2011 (IDR 2011) shows that increased industrial energy efficiency is one of the most promising routes to sustainable industrial development worldwide, particularly in developing countries.